Updated On

February 11, 2024

Why You Can Trust Us

Today’s Homeowner exists to help you maintain or improve your home safely and effectively. We uphold strict editorial standards and carefully vet the advice and resources referenced in our articles. Click below to learn more about our review process and how we earn money.

Learn More

    Maryland is an outstanding place to go solar. With plenty of sun to provide energy for your system and average energy prices, homeowners typically enjoy energy savings that pay for their systems and continue to save them money over time.

    However, if you’re looking through the most reliable companies to install your solar panel system, you might be overwhelmed by the number of choices. In this guide, we’ll provide a list of the top seven solar installers in MD to help you find the best one for you and your home.

    Best Solar Financing
    blue raven logo

    4.3

    No payments needed for 18 months

    Provides in-house financing

    Offers top brands like LG and Trina

    GET QUOTE
    Best Customer Service

    3.9

    Highly rated customer service

    Provides  24/7 panel monitoring

    Solid A+ rating with the BBB

    GET QUOTE
    Best Damage Protection

    3.7

    Affordable prices

    Excellent selection of panels and services

    Locations in 22 states

    GET QUOTE
    Best Customization Options

    3.4

    Quick installation

    NABCEP and BPI certified

    Several financing options

    GET QUOTE

      Compare the Top-Rated Solar Companies in Maryland

      The table below includes a quick side-by-side comparison of our top-rated solar companies in Maryland. We’ll include additional information on each of these installers in the following sections to help guide your decision.

      CompanyLogoStar RatingBest ForService AreaLink

      Best Financing Options

      MD, VA, PA, & Washington D.C.

      solar energy world logo

      Best Warranty Coverage

      MD, VA, NJ, PA, DE, NC, SC, FL

      Best Customer Service

      MD, VA, & Washington, D.C.

      Best for Local Experience

      Maryland

      Best Customization Options

      9 states

      Best Sales Process

      Maryland

      CompanyStar RatingBest ForService AreaBBB Rating

      Best Financing Options

      MD, VA, PA, & Washington D.C.

      A+

      Best Warranty Coverage

      MD, VA, NJ, PA, DE, NC, SC, FL

      A+

      Best Customer Service

      MD, VA, & Washington, D.C.

      A-

      Best for Local Experience

      Maryland

      A+

      Best Customization Options

      9 states

      A+

      Best Sales Process

      Maryland

      A+


      What Are the Best Solar Installation Companies in Maryland?

      Below is a list of our top recommended solar panel installation companies in Maryland:

      SunPower: Best Overall
      Highest Quality Panels

      SunPower

      4.4

      Our Rating

      SunPower has been providing solar panel installation services since 1985, and it remains among the most trusted and reputable solar companies in the country. It used to outsource installations to third parties, but it now handles them in-house. It offers outstanding warranties that are ideal for protecting your system in Maryland’s climate, and it offers some of the most efficient panels — Maxeon — in the industry.

      Long history of excellence
      Industry affiliations
      Offers high-quality and highly efficient equipment
      In-house installations
      Excellent company ratings and BBB rating
      Expensive
      Only carries one solar panel brand
      Average Cost

      SunPower’s solar systems average around $3.30 per watt, which means that the average 7-kW solar system required in Maryland to eliminate utility bills will cost around $23,000 from SunPower. This would come out to around $17,000 after the federal solar tax credit is applied.

      SunPower has one of the best warranties in the solar industry. It covers physical damage and guarantees top-tier power production for 25 years. It’s one of the few companies that offers roof leak warranties, which is great for Maryland homeowners who experience above-average rainfall and the remnants of hurricanes and tropical cyclones.

      SunPower installs solar panels and solar batteries, and it can also provide solar monitoring and EV chargers. This is a full-service solar company.

      SunPower accepts cash purchases, solar loans, solar leases, and power purchase agreements (PPAs), which means just about every homeowner can find a financing option that works for them.

      SunPower has a referral program that provides a $100 incentive for each homeowner you refer that opts to have an in-home consultation completed.

      SunPower used to outsource all of its installations, but it recently went through a company restructuring. Now, Maxeon produces the panels, and SunPower handles the installations in-house.

      SunPower only installs Maxeon panels, which include microinverters.

      SunPower is accredited by the Better Business Bureau (BBB) and the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). It is also accredited by the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP).


      Featured Video: Learn Which Solar Incentives to Claim in Maryland To Maximize Savings


      Best Financing Options

      Lumina Solar

      3

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      No current offers available

      Lumina Solar is a regional solar installer that is based in Baltimore, so it has a massive local presence. Lumina Solar maintains outstanding customer reviews and provides full-service solar installations at affordable prices. Lumina is a young company, but it has already established an outstanding reputation in the industry.

      It comes in around average in terms of overall pricing, but its warranty and customer service are outstanding, so the quality-to-price ratio is in your favor.

      Local company
      Accepts all financing options
      Relatively affordable
      Several top-tier equipment brands offered
      Excellent warranties
      No solar monitoring
      Young company with minimal track record
      Average Cost

      Lumina Solar provides quite a few different solar panel brands, so the price can fluctuate quite a bit. The average price per watt is around $2.70, which would put the typical system cost at around $14,000 after the ITC.

      Lumina provides the manufacturer’s warranty on all equipment, so you’re looking at anywhere from 10 to 25 years in terms of product coverage, depending on what you have installed. The company also offers a 10-year warranty on the installation, which is extendable up to 30 years.

      Lumina tackles solar panel and solar battery installations, as well as electric vehicle chargers. It doesn’t provide solar monitoring.

      Lumina Solar accepts all financing options except power purchase agreements (PPAs), so it will work for your needs if you’re looking for a cash purchase, solar loan, or solar lease.

      Check out our comparison between leasing and buying solar panels.

      Lumina has a referral program that nets you $500 for each homeowner you refer that eventually has panels installed through the company.

      Lumina has an in-house team of NABCEP-certified installers, so all installations are completed by employees of the company.

      Lumina Solar installs solar equipment from Silfab, Enphase, Canadian Solar, REC, and Tesla.

      Lumina is a NABCEP partner, and it’s also accredited by the Better Business Bureau.

      Best Warranty Coverage

      Solar Energy World

      4.0

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      No current offers available.

      Solar Energy World is a regional company with a location in Elkridge that covers all of Maryland. It has been around since 2009, and it has countless positive customer reviews and an A+ rating from the BBB. Solar Energy World offers some of the best affordable solar equipment in the industry. It also includes excellent warranty coverage for the cost, making it a great value for the money.

      Affordable solar solutions
      Long company history
      Great warranty coverage
      Installs many top-tier brands
      Full-service company
      Large company size sometimes leads to below-average customer service
      No leases or PPAs accepted
      Average Cost

      According to the company’s website, most of its installations in Maryland total between $12,000 and $17,000 after the federal tax credit is considered. This puts the company around average in terms of pricing.

      Solar Energy World provides manufacturer’s warranties for all equipment, which range from 10 to 25 years. The panels are covered for between 20 and 25 years. The company also provides a 30-year warranty for installation and solar power production, which is outstanding.

      Solar Energy World can install panels and solar batteries, and it provides solar monitoring through third parties. It doesn’t handle electric vehicle charger installations.

      This company accepts cash purchases and solar loans. Customers looking for solar leases or PPAs will not be able to get service from this company.

      Solar Energy World has a referral program for customers and non-customers. You can earn a $300 pre-paid debit card if a referred customer installs anything under a 6-kW system or $500 for a system over 6 kW.

      Solar Energy World performs its own installations, which generally leads to positive customer service with this company.

      This company installs a wide variety of solar equipment brands, including Hanwha, Silfab, SolarEdge, REC, Longi, LG, Tesla, Enphase, SMA, and Fronius.

      This company has several NABCEP-certified installers on its team, and the company as a whole is BBB-certified as well.

      Best Customer Service

      Nova Solar

      4.0

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      No current offers available

      Nova Solar is a small regional company that services Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C. This company is well-known in the area for its outstanding customer service, its high-quality, top-tier equipment, and its reasonable prices. Nova Solar provides a lot of bang for your buck, including above-average equipment and quality of service for pricing that’s about average.

      Great customer service
      Excellent equipment brands offered
      Warranty options are outstanding
      Many years of local experience
      Few financing options available
      Average Cost

      There is no average cost information for solar energy systems installed by Nova Solar, but based on customer reviews and company comparisons, we can estimate that the cost of solar with Nova is about average. That means around $15,000 after tax credits in Maryland, on average.

      Nova provides a 25-year warranty for all equipment installed, as well as a 10-year warranty for the labor and workmanship. Unfortunately, there is no warranty for the power production.

      Nova Solar is more of a basic solar installation company, tackling solar panels and solar batteries only. You’ll have to find another installer if you’re looking for add-on products or services beyond these.

      Nova only accepts cash purchases and solar loans. Customers who want to explore solar leases or PPAs will need to choose a different installation company.

      Nova has an in-house installation team that performs all of the work. Nothing is outsourced when you choose this company, which is partially why it’s able to provide such a high level of customer service.

      Nova carries and installs solar equipment from Enphase, REC, LG, QCells, and SolarEdge.

      Several technicians on Nova’s installation team hold the NABCEP certification. The company is also accredited with the BBB and maintains a positive rating there.

      Best for Local Experience

      Edge Energy

      3.7

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      No current offers available

      Edge Energy is a small, local company based in Beltsville, MD. It’s a certified installer for SunPower, which means you can get top-quality panels with local expertise and outstanding customer service.

      Great customer service
      Certified SunPower dealer
      Relatively affordable
      Many years of experience
      Only one equipment brand offered
      Relatively small service area
      Average Cost

      Edge Energy keeps its costs low while providing top-of-the-line equipment. The specific pricing model it uses isn’t available online, but it typically comes in around average in terms of cost.

      The warranty provided by Edge Energy comes directly from SunPower, so it’s one of the best in the industry. Customers can expect a 25-year warranty for the equipment, workmanship, and power production, which is outstanding.

      This company installs solar panels and solar battery systems, and it can also provide solar monitoring services.

      Unlike working with SunPower directly, you’ll only have access to cash payments and solar loans if you choose Edge Energy.

      Edge Energy offers a $625 bonus for any business you refer to the company, which is a nice incentive for promoting clean energy.

      All of the systems that this company installs are done through the in-house installation team, so you’ll never have a third party at your home when you choose Edge Energy.

      This company only installs SunPower panels. While these are some of the best in the industry, it is a downside for customers who are looking for variety or equipment options.

      The installers at Edge Energy are NABCEP-certified, which is great news. However, the company is not yet accredited with the BBB and isn’t a member of any other industry organizations.

      Best Customization Options

      Trinity Solar

      3.4

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      Earn $1,000 When You Refer a Friend To Trinity

      Trinity Solar has been in business since 1996, so it has many years of experience and success under its belt. It has decent warranty coverage and accepts a wide range of financing options. However, it does have some issues with providing quality customer service.

      Many financing options available
      Decades of experience
      Relatively affordable
      Not the best workmanship warranty
      Some issues with customer service
      Average Cost

      Trinity Solar doesn’t advertise specific pricing with respect to solar energy solutions, but it does appear to have about average pricing. Given the typical cost of a system in MD, you can expect to pay around $15,000 for a system from Trinity. It makes solar systems accessible and affordable by keeping costs low and providing financing options to suit just about any budget.

      Trinity Solar provides the standard 25-year manufacturer’s warranty for its equipment. Unfortunately, the workmanship warranty only lasts for 5 years, and there is no warranty for power production.

      Trinity is a basic solar installer that tackles panel and battery backup installations. It can also perform energy audits to ensure your home is at peak energy efficiency. However, it doesn’t offer EV chargers or other add-on products or services.

      Trinity Solar not only maintains average pricing to keep solar affordable, but it also accepts all of the standard financing options to keep it accessible. It will suit you whether you’re looking to buy your panels with cash, a solar loan, a solar lease, or a PPA.

      Trinity Solar has a referral program where you can earn $1,000 for each customer you refer that installs a solar panel system.

      Trinity Solar has a large in-house installation team. Every system is installed by its own employees, which helps maintain generally positive customer service and quality.

      Unfortunately, Trinity Solar doesn’t publish the equipment brands it uses.

      Trinity Solar is a BBB-accredited company, but it doesn’t have any industry-specific affiliations.

      Best Sales Process

      Celestial Solar Innovations

      3.9

      Our Rating

      Limited Time Offer:
      No current offers available

      Celestial Solar Innovations is a solar installer that is based in Frederick, Maryland, and its representatives are all locally trained and experienced. Its pricing is around average, and the customer service provided for that price is outstanding.

      Incredible customer service
      Relatively affordable
      Years of local experience
      Educational, non-pushy sales process
      Relatively small service area
      Manufacturer’s warranties only
      Average Cost

      As mentioned above, Celestial Solar Innovations is around average in price. Although it doesn’t publish its typical pricing, you can expect a system from this installer to cost between $13,000 and $17,000 after solar incentive programs are applied.

      Celestial Solar Innovations only offers the manufacturer’s warranty, which is less than ideal. The exact coverage will vary based on the brand of equipment you have installed, and there is no coverage for workmanship or power generation.

      This company primarily installs solar panels and battery backups, but it also offers solar monitoring services.

      While the systems from Celestial Solar Innovations are relatively affordable, you’ll only have the option to pay with cash or a solar loan. Leases and PPAs are not accepted.

      This is a small company, but it has its own installation team and performs all of the work in-house. This helps the company maintain its stellar reviews and reputation for quality customer service.

      Celestial Solar Innovations installs equipment manufactured by Enphase, REC, LG, SolarEdge, Panasonic, Mission Solar, and Solaria. Many of these are considered tier-one residential PV brands.

      Celestial Solar Innovations has NABCEP-certified installers on its in-house installation team. The company is also accredited by the BBB.


      What Factors Should You Consider When Choosing a Good Solar Company in Maryland?

      If you’re still not sure which of the above companies is the best one to tackle your solar project, you might want to do some of your own research on these options or on other companies to be certain you make the right decision. Below, we’ll discuss some of the most crucial factors to consider when choosing a solar company in Maryland and why each is important.

      • Cost of Services & Installation
      • Equipment and Damages Warranty
      • Solar Services Offered
      • Financing Options
      • Do They Contract Installation?
      • Brands of Solar Equipment Offered
      • Average Online Rating and Customer Reviews
      • Industry Partnerships
      • Size of Company

      Cost of Services & Installation

      Of course, the cost of your solar panel system will always be an important factor for you to consider. What you might not know is that installing an identical system with two different companies can come with vastly different prices. Each solar provider can charge unique prices for equipment and installation labor. We recommend comparing solar energy companies based on the price of the system and the overall value, rather than just looking at the cost.

      Additionally, costs can vary based on other factors, like your energy needs, your roof size, shading on your roof, and more.

      Read our article to learn more about the cost of solar panel system.

      Equipment and Damages Warranty

      Maryland is prone to some severe weather, including tropical cyclones and severe thunderstorms. For this reason, having a robust warranty for damage to the system is important for protecting your investment and maintaining peace of mind. It’s also a good idea to look for a roof leak warranty and an efficiency warranty, as these will help protect your home and ensure that you save on your energy bills.

      Solar Services Offered

      While all solar installation companies will be able to provide and install solar panels, you might want or need additional services that can help rule out panel-only companies. For example, all of our top-rated Maryland solar companies install panels and solar batteries, and some tackle EV chargers and other add-on products. However, other companies you might run into in your area might only be able to install panels, which means you can rule them out if you need other solar equipment or services like solar monitoring.

      It’s worth mentioning that power outages are relatively common in Maryland due to the potential for extreme weather and the aging electrical infrastructure. As such, you might want to choose a company that offers solar batteries like the Tesla Powerwall, which are a popular option in MD.

      Financing Options

      While Maryland solar solutions ultimately save money in most cases, they are expensive, so it’s important to consider your financing options. Most solar companies accept cash purchases and solar loans, and the best solar companies in Maryland provide in-house financing or partner with reputable solar lenders to make the financing process straightforward. Some companies offer solar leases and power purchase agreements (PPAs). These options require no money down and can be appealing for some homeowners, although they save less money in the long run.

      Do They Contract Installation?

      Some solar companies have an in-house installation team, which means you have a single company that is responsible for your system. This is desirable for many homeowners, as it usually means a higher degree of accountability and overall quality for the system installation. Other companies — like Tesla — outsource the installation to third-party companies, and while this isn’t necessarily a bad thing, it more often leads to worse customer service.

      Brands of Solar Equipment Offered

      Each solar installer provides specific equipment brands, and the options provided by your company make a huge difference in terms of price, efficiency, and overall quality. Some solar panel brands have higher-than-average solar panel efficiency ratings — like the Maxeon installed by SunPower — and come with industry-leading warranties, although these often come at higher prices as well. It’s wise to balance performance, quality, and price when searching for a panel brand that suits you. You can then search for companies that carry your desired brand to rule out some of your options. Read our article to discover solar panels with premium efficiency.

      Average Online Rating and Customer Reviews

      It’s always important to check a company’s online ratings and reviews on multiple sources before committing. Given the high demand for solar in Maryland, there are many companies popping up that could prove to be less reliable than others. The last thing you want is to spend thousands of dollars on a solar panel system, only to realize that a non-reputable company didn’t size it properly for your home or installed it incorrectly.

      We strongly suggest choosing a company with years of experience and mostly positive ratings on sites like Google Reviews, Yelp, and other review sites.

      Industry Partnerships

      The solar industry is home to many non-profit organizations that help to promote reputable companies and solar in general. You can look for affiliations with national associations like the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) or local ones like the Chesapeake Solar & Storage Association (CHESSA) and the Solar United Neighbors of Maryland.

      Size of Company

      Finally, you should consider the size of the solar company you’re considering, and what the company size means in terms of the service you’ll receive. Smaller, local companies usually provide the best service and response times to inquiries and issues, while larger companies usually provide lower prices and better warranties. These aren’t steadfast rules but rather trends, so make sure to look into how the size of each company you’re considering plays into your price for solar and the customer service you’ll receive.

      We recommend exploring our list to find high-class solar service providers you can choose from.

      top solar installers in maryland

      Our Final Verdict on the Top-Rated Solar Companies in Maryland

      According to the SEIA, there are around 100 local solar installers in Maryland and even more national companies, all of which can provide solar panel installation services. Choosing the right company involves assessing candidates based on numerous factors, including the overall cost of services, the warranties and product brands offered, the quality of the customer service, and more.

      Our pick for the best solar company in Maryland is SunPower, as it has decades of experience, installs top-quality equipment, and maintains excellent customer service and positive customer reviews. Although SunPower is a bit on the expensive side, the quality and consistency of the company’s work make it an outstanding choice for installing your solar panel system in Maryland.

      Get a Solar Quote in 30 Seconds
      On average, homeowners save $5,000–$20,000 with solar panels

      FAQs About Solar Companies in Maryland

      Which is the most reputable company in Maryland?

      In our opinion, SunPower is the most reputable solar company that operates in the Free State. This is a national company that has been around since the 1980s. It installs only top-quality panels, performs in-house installations, and provides industry-leading warranties to keep your system and home protected.

       


      What are the best solar companies in Baltimore, MD?

      Our top three solar companies in Baltimore include SunPower, which is a highly-rated national company, and American Solar Enterprises and Bright Eye Solar, both of which are much smaller local companies. All of these options are likely to lead to outstanding customer service and a high-quality solar system that provides tons of value to your home and reduces or eliminates your electric bills.

       


      Does Maryland offer a solar tax credit?

      Maryland doesn’t have a state-specific solar tax credit, but all residents can still take advantage of the federal solar investment tax credit (ITC), which is one of the best solar incentives in the country. Additionally, Maryland has a solar rebate program — the Residential Clean Energy Rebate Program — that can provide additional state-specific savings.

       


      How much does solar installation cost in Maryland?

      It’s difficult to say what your solar system will cost in MD because there are many factors that affect your price, including the brand of panels you install, the size of your system, and the company you choose to install your solar panels. Most homeowners in MD pay around $15,000 for solar panels after the ITC is considered, and most systems in the area fall between $10,000 and $20,000.

       


      Which factor is most important to consider when choosing the best solar company in MD?

      All of the factors discussed above should be considered when you’re deciding on a solar company in Maryland, but most homeowners find that the warranty coverage is most critical. Maryland receives some severe weather every year that can contribute to panel damage, so a physical warranty is crucial. Additionally, the state receives an average of 59 inches of rain each year, which is well above the national average. As such, a roof leak warranty is a great option to have, although few companies provide long-lasting coverage for roof penetration.

       


      Are solar panels worth it in Maryland?

      For most homeowners, the answer to this question is a resounding yes! Although electricity rates in Maryland are around the national average, most homeowners still find that installing solar panels is a worthwhile investment. The typical MD resident will pay around $15,000 for their photovoltaic system but stands to pay back that amount and continue to save thousands of dollars over the lifespan of the system. The payback period is around 12 years, on average, after which you’ll likely begin profiting from your system.

       


      Is Maryland a good state to invest in solar?

      Maryland is ranked 18th in the country in terms of solar adoption, and the potential savings in the Free State are outstanding, thanks to slightly above-average energy rates and plentiful sunshine. Most homeowners end up saving thousands by installing solar, despite the seemingly high system cost.

       


      Can I get free solar panel installation in Maryland?

      Some solar panel companies advertise free solar panels in Maryland, but no company will actually provide panels for free. Most of the time, these companies are looking to get you to sign a PPA or solar lease, neither of which is as beneficial to you as a purchased or financed solar system. It’s usually best to stay away from these options.

       


      How does solar increase my home value in Maryland?

      Solar adds an average of 4.1% to your home value, according to Zillow. With solar becoming more commonplace in America, buyers understand that solar panels will help keep energy bills from utility companies to a minimum, which, in turn, means they value solar energy equipment. Maryland also has quite a few solar incentives that make solar panel systems more valuable overall. These include a Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) program that lets you sell excess solar energy for cash, the Maryland Solar Energy Rebate program, and net metering, which helps offset and eliminate energy bills entirely by converting to solar energy.

       


      Methodology: How We Reviewed Solar Companies in Maryland

      At Today's Homeowner, transparency and trust are our most important values for the reader. That’s why we took the time to create an objective rating system and score each solar energy company/service according to our methodology.

      Our research team dug deep into the fine print of contracts, combed through more than one hundred customer reviews, and thoroughly investigated all of each solar energy company’s services, costs, and products. We’ve done the homework for you by researching nearly all of the solar energy companies on the market so you can have the information you need to make the best choice for your home.

      We developed a formula to objectively determine the best solar energy companies and give each a score out of 100 based on the following criteria:

      • Plan Options (30): Do they provide various plan options? We looked at the number of plans each solar energy company offered and the flexibility of adjusting the plan.
      • Services offered (20): How many services are offered in each plan? We looked at whether the company manufactures its own solar panels, whether it contracts out installation, and what additional products each company offers.
      • Trust (10): What do customers say after their solar panels are installed? Does this company offer a guarantee? We considered how satisfied customers are post-service if the company does what it says it will, BBB accreditation, and service guarantees.
      • Prices (10): How reasonable are the costs of the plan or service in comparison to the industry average? We compared the costs of each company to competitors that offer the same solar energy services.
      • Unique perks (10): Does the company offer discounts or special services such as financial incentives, rebates, or a useful mobile app? We looked for extras each company offers that set them apart from the competition.
      • Customer Service (10): How is the customer experience when contacting the company? We considered the speed of response, weekend/holiday availability, and ease of communication through phone calls, email, and online chat functions.
      • Nationwide availability (10): How many states does the company offer its services? Companies that operate nationally and in all zip codes are favored over those with limited availability.
      Editorial Contributors
      avatar for Dan Simms

      Dan Simms

      Contributor

      Dan Simms worked in real estate management for five years before using his experience to help property owners maintain their own homes. He got his master’s degree in English Literature and Creative Writing, and he now enjoys sharing his knowledge about homeownership and DIY projects with others on Today’s Homeowner. When he’s not writing, he’s usually outdoors with his wife and his dog, enjoying mountain biking, skiing, and hiking.

      Learn More

      photo of Lora Novak

      Lora Novak

      Senior Editor

      Lora Novak meticulously proofreads and edits all commercial content for Today’s Homeowner to guarantee that it contains the most up-to-date information. Lora brings over 12 years of writing, editing, and digital marketing expertise. She’s worked on thousands of articles related to heating, air conditioning, ventilation, roofing, plumbing, lawn/garden, pest control, insurance, and other general homeownership topics.

      Learn More

      Top Solar Pros in Maryland Cities