A rafter is an important structural component for roof construction, and if you’re planning for a project, you might be wondering about the proper rafter spacing and sizing.
Rafter spacing is the horizontal distance between the parallel rafters measured from one rafter’s center to the next one. It helps determine the number of rafters based on the building’s length important for roof design and construction.
When planning for roof construction, it’s important to know the standard rafter spacing and sizing, lumber sizes, and the estimated number of rafters needed to ensure proper structural building.
Become more informed about the standard building codes for roof rafters to ensure it’s approved.
What Is Rafter Spacing?
Rafter spacing is the measurement of the distance between the roof joists, also known as the parallel rafters that extend from the ridge or the hip to the wall plate, eave, or downslope perimeter. It is estimated from the on-center or the given dimension of the distance between one rafter’s center to the center of the next rafter.
Rafter spacing is one of the essential aspects of building and roof design as it helps determine the rafter’s maximum spand and the number of rafters needed based on the building’s length.
Along with other factors affecting the span, it includes grade, load variables, and wood species.
In addition, it’s necessary to know rafter spacing because, as part of the engineering calculations, it helps determine and form the required roof structure that meets the building codes while holding up the roof load and roof weight.
How to Calculate Rafter Spacing?
Calculating the rafter spacing is determined by the prescriptive tables provided by the International Residential Code (IRC), which is found in Chapter 8. However, rafter spacing may also be calculated by a professional structural engineer. In addition, the standard roof rafter spacing used in the roof framing includes 12″, 16″, 19.2″, or 24″ on-center.
You may also use available rafter spacing calculators online, where you can personally select the different dimensions for your roofing frame. It includes wood species, grade, span options, max span, deflection, dead load, live load, spacing, and other service conditions. After choosing the different dimensions, you can click on the ‘Calculate’ button, which provides helpful information about rafter spacing.
Remember that using this rafter spacing calculator may provide an accurate estimate. Still, it’s best to follow the guidelines provided by the Building Code or a Structural Engineer to prevent unnecessary calculation errors and ensure a local Building Department approves it.
Rafter Spacing Chart
What Is The Standard Roof Rafter Spacing?
The standard roof rafter spacings measured on-center are 12″, 16″, 19.2″, and 24″. The International Residential Building Code (IRC), which is the basis of most North America’s building coide, identifies these standard industry measurements.
However, the structural engineer may determine other roof rafter spacing measurements, and these may vary depending on the contributing factors affecting it. In addition, the standard roof rafter spacings commonly used for most building structures are 16″ and 24″.
Roof Joist Spacing Guide
A roofing joist is a parallel horizontal member or beam that runs across an open space, which can either be laid pitched or flat, exposed or concealed, depending on the construction. Roofing joists also join the building’s opposite walls to support the floor above and the ceiling by transferring the roof’s weight to the vertical columns and into the foundation.
Roof joist spacing has requirements or factors, including the rafter size, rafter span, thickness, wood species, grade, thickness, wind and snow loads, deflection, and location. Live and snow loads range from 10 to 70psf (per sq ft), with dead loads ranging from 10 to 20psf. The deflections range from L/∆=180 and L/∆=240.
Different climate conditions may also influence the code requirements for roof joist spacing requirements for the location.
You might want to read our article to see our comparison of rafters and joists.
Rafter Spacing For Metal Roof
Rafter Spacing Guide
Metal roofing, usually made of steel or aluminum, comes in various compositions and profiles. The rafter spacing for metal roofing often needs to be set to support the metal panels directly fastened to the rafters.
The rafter spacing used for metal roofs is commonly set by the metal panel manufacturer to ensure it’s suitable for the dimensions of the roof structure. Metal roofs are also flimsier and generally lighter, so the rafters need less weight to support or bear. Because of this, the rafter spacing can be greater.
In general, the rafter for metal roofs is either spaced at 16″ or 24″ on-center.
Rafter spacing for a porch roof may vary depending on the various factors that affect it, including wood species, grade, load, deflection, purpose, porch roof design, and even climate.
In general, the rafter spacing for the porch roof is typically either 16” or 24” on-center.
Rafter spacing for pergola may vary depending on the size of the pergola or your visual preference. But the standard spacing for the pergola rafters typically used is 12″ to 20″, but the most common measurements used are 12″ and 16″ on-center.
If the weight of the rafters of smaller pergolas won’t cause the beam to droop, 12″ spacing is recommended. If the weight of the rafters would be a problem to bear for the beam, it’s best to use 16″ spacing.
There is no standard measurement used in rafter spacing for a pole barn. It typically depends on the specifications of the building and the preference of the owner.
In general, constructions often use the 4ft to 12 ft rafter spacing for a pole barn.
Rafter Beam Spacing
Rafter beams are exposed horizontal structural elements you see in the ceiling designed to support the weight of the building’s roof, transferring the load to a vertical structural part.
In general, a rafter beam spacing should be no more than 16″ apart from another rafter beam. You may decrease the rafter beam space but never increase the rafter beam spacing.
What Is Rafter Sizing?
In general, rafter sizing refers to the thickness and depth range of the specific lumber used for the roof rafter project. The roof rafter span is commonly measured by the distance of the rafter projection horizontally from the ridge to the supporting outside wall plate’s outer edge.
In addition, rafter sizing is expressed as a ratio of the roof’s rise to the run (half of the distance) or a fraction of the rise over the run.
Depending on your roof’s structure and overall size, the sizes of lumber you need for your roof rafters will vary. It may also depend on other factors, including the pitch or slope of roof, roof sheating, grade of timber, lumber size, wood species, snow load, live load, and rafter spacing.
What Size Of Lumber Do You Need For Roof Rafters?
The most common available lumber sizes used in roof framing include 2″×6″, 2″×8″, 2″×10″, 2″×12″, and 2″×14″ used in roof framing. There’s also a 2″×4″ lumber, but it’s not commonly used in building.
In general, a 2″×6″ lumber may span from 10 to 15 feet, while a 2″×8″ lumber may span from 13 to 19 feet. Likewise, a 2″×10″ lumber may span from 16 to 23 feet, while a 2″×12″ lumber may span from 18 to 27 feet. In addition, the 2″×4″ lumber may span from 7 to 9 feet.
How Many Rafters Do You Need?
Calculating the estimated number of rafters needed for your roof rafters is important. It may be done using rafter calculators if you want a more straightforward method. But you may also use a manual estimation using a standard calculator or pencil and paper.
The first thing to do is find the measurements, including the roof’s length and overhang or rafter spacing. Then, you use the size of the roof’s length and divide it by the rafter spacing. After doing this, add 1 for the ‘0’ rafter. Lastly, multiply the number of rafters by 2 to get both sides of the roof or the roof’s slopes.
For example, your house is 40 feet long with a 24″ rafter spacing. So the first thing you need to do is convert 30 ft to inches.
40ft x 12″ = 480″ (length in inches) ÷ 24″ on-center = 20 rafters. After getting the answer, add 1 for the ‘0’ rafter and multiply it by 2. You’ll get the number of rafters needed for your roof.
40ft x 12” = 480” ÷ 24” on-center = 20 rafters + 1 = 21 rafters per side x 2 = 42 rafters