How to Grow Holly

“Deck the halls with boughs of holly” may be a traditional Christmas carol, but holly has enjoyed a long symbolic history in other cultures as well. From decorating statues of Saturn—the Roman god of the harvest—to providing medieval protection from evil spirits, to offering shelter to imaginary woodland creatures and fairies, holly boughs and berries have brightened up the winter months since ancient times.

In the garden, hollies (Ilex sp.) are a striking choice that provide year-round interest and serve as great foundation plantings or hedges. There are hundreds of varieties of hollies, ranging from tiny shrubs less than a foot tall to towering trees reaching 70’. Most are hardy to zones 5 or 6, with a few varieties hardy to zone 4.

Holly Varieties

Hollies are known more for their berries than their small white flowers. You can find red, pink, blue, orange, yellow, and white berries, with some varieties more showy than others.

The shrubs and trees themselves may be rounded, pyramidal, columnar, or weeping in form. Leaf shapes range from the large, spiny leaves of holiday tradition, to tiny, smoother ones that are often mistaken for boxwood.

Sorting out the hundreds of varieties and hybrids of hollies can be a dizzying task. In general, hollies can be divided in the following main groups:

  • English Holly: (Ilex aquifolium) These are the varieties most commonly associated with the Christmas holiday. With glossy, spiny foliage and variegated options, they can make a bold statement both indoors and out. Popular varieties include ‘Angustifolia’ and ‘Gold Coast.’
  • American Holly: (Ilex opaca) Similar to English holly but with duller leaves. The trees tend to be pyramidal in shape and make great barrier plants. Common varieties include ‘Carnival’ and ‘Greenleaf.’
  • Japanese Holly: (Ilex crenata) Include the distinctive ‘Sky Pencil’ as well as dwarf spineless varieties such as ‘Yaupon’ and ‘Helleri.’

  • ‘Carissa’ holly

  • Chinese Holly: (Ilex cornuta) Best known for the large, glossy, spineless varieties such as ‘Burford’ and ‘Carissa.’
  • Hybrid Holly: Includes countless options, one of the most popular being the Meserve hybrids (Ilex x. meserveae) which cross English and Chinese hollies with the more cold-hardy ‘Prostrate (I. rugosa) variety. Popular Meserve hybrids include the Blue hollies and ‘China Girl.’ A common natural American holly hybrid is ‘Fosteri’ (I. x attenuata).
  • Deciduous Holly: These varieties lose their leaves to display branches laden with berries in winter, giving rise to the common name of Winterberry (I. verticillata), as well as Possumhaw (I. decidua). Popular varieties include ‘Red Sprite’ and ‘Jim Dandy.’
  • Miscellaneous Evergreen Varieties: As if those above weren’t enough, there’s Inkberry (I. glabra) as well as Asiatic varieties such as Longstalk (I. pedunculosa) and Perny (I. pernyi).

Plant Gender and Berry Production

Hollies have male and female plants, with only the females producing berries. Female plants must be pollinated by male plants that bloom at the same time.

In developed neighborhoods, there are often sufficient male shrubs in the vicinity, but if your plant is not producing berries you may need to plant a pollinator. A good guideline is that you need at least one male plant for every ten females. Many cultivated varieties have male and female named counterparts, such as Blue Girl and Blue Boy.

Some commercial growers solve the pollination problem by grafting together both male and female stems, or by planting them together in the same pot. Be sure you know the plant’s gender before purchasing a holly shrub, so you won’t be disappointed.

‘Helleri’ reaches 4’ tall and resembles a small boxwood

Tips for Growing Holly

  • Hollies don’t transplant well, so consider the plant’s full-grown size when choosing your planting spot.
  • This also means it’s difficult to transplant one from the wild, so buy nursery-grown plants instead.
  • Hollies can be propagated from cuttings of year-old growth. Propagation from seed is difficult but not impossible.
  • Plants usually bloom within 2-3 years. Berries may take longer, so be patient!

‘Soft Touch’ is a dwarf spreading variety that grows only 2’ tall but up to 8’ wide.

Planting and Growing Conditions

While many of us go on a mad search for holly branches and berries around the holidays, holly shrubs are best planted in spring, right before they start growing but with plenty of warm weather on the way. Hollies like:

  • Light: Holly plants to best in full sun.
  • Soil: Well drained loamy soil that is slightly acidic. If your soil is very heavy, add some organic material to lighten the texture and improve drainage.
  • Water: Hollies like a moderate amount of water, usually adequately provided by rainfall. Water weekly during drought.
  • Mulch: Several inches of mulch to prevent freeze-thaw damage to the shallow roots. Apply mulch in a circle as wide as the branches.
  • Fertilizer: A dose of fertilizer in spring and fall can help keep plants healthy.


Hollies respond well to pruning and make great hedges or geometric shapes. Correct bare spots, caused by over shearing, by occasionally making deeper pruning cuts to allow light to penetrate the plant.

Take care to prune branches only back to a growth bud – if you completely remove a holly branch or stem, it may not fill back in. The holidays are a great time to prune hollies – then use those cuttings to deck the halls!

The striking tall column of ‘Sky Pencil’ make it a good container plant.

Pests and Diseases

  • Birds love holly berries, but thankfully they prefer them after several freezes, which usually means they wait until late winter to eat them.
  • The most common diseases affecting hollies are black spot, phytophthora leaf and twig blight, and sooty mold.
  • Problematic insects include holly leaf miners, bud moths, and red mites.

Further Information

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Backed by his 40-year remodeling career, Danny served as the home improvement expert for CBS’s The Early Show and The Weather Channel for more than a decade. His extensive hands-on experience and understanding of the industry make him the go-to source for all things having to do with the home – from advice on simple repairs, to complete remodels, to helping homeowners prepare their homes for extreme weather and seasons.


  1. Thank you for your information on holly trees. I am working on a science project and your site has been very useful.

  2. Great information! I just purchased a holly plant (male and female grafted) and wanted info on what holly prefers. Do you any any special advice for planting holly in Southwestern Ontario? Thanks again!

  3. Just curious…I have planted some carissa hollies and just found out they are covered in black spot…they look pretty bad…i purchased some fungicide…what do you recommend on treating the black spot and has it damaged my hollies long term? Thanks

  4. I planted a new shrub bed early spring. Included in the planting is a Carrisa holly. It looked great until this last week and the inside leaves have turned white and fell off of the plant. We have had 100 and above temps but we have watered faithfully. This shrub receives 6 hrs of full sun. We amended the bed with organic matter before planting and used mulch too.
    Hope you can help.

  5. Three comments: (1) I loved the info, except for: (2) there were no pictures of what the diseases and pests looked like and (3) there were no “answers” given to the above comments. We all come to your site for answers so how about giving them on your site. Bless you anyway. Fr. Gayle

  6. My son bought me 20 pencil holly trees for my birthday (October) in Illinois. We had the coldest winter I can remember. I covered and strawed all of them, but the winter wind took their cover away. The stems are green, but all the leaves died. What can, or should do to save my trees? please advise – my first time on a computer. thanks

  7. My holly is’nt very big and the deer striped off all the leaves last winter but it came back very well. This year it will be protected.

  8. One of my English Holly plants turned black on almost all branches but some branches are still green. There are parts of the main stem still green. What do you suggest I do? I live in New York and it is @ 38 degrees here.

  9. The holly trees in my neighborhood were without berries this Christmas, when they are normally heavy with them. Was this from some condition, or did the birds get an early start on eating them all?

  10. The neighbor gave me some of her Holly Berry branches about 12 inches long i put them in water .Will they grow and what should I do

  11. I have 2 small holly trees don’t know names but they are slightly different. I have lots of little white buds/flowers on both trees, but last year the flowers vanished I had 2 berries on one tree. Are they being eaten or is something wrong?
    thank you, Brenda

  12. A sad fact is that English Holly has become VERY invasive on the west coast and has escaped into natural areas, especially forests, where it crowds out native plants (web search “holly invasive”!). PLEASE think twice about this not-so-innocent plant!

  13. My holly trees are like dwarfs, intended to be slim, but they are too tall. Can I cut off the top and still maintain the Christmas tree shape

  14. I have a small English Holly plant that I bought. I was wondering when I should plant it outside, being it’s the beginning of December? Any suggestions?

  15. Very insightful information, thank you! One question however…in early Spring (May 7th) are the leaves on both the male & female bushes supposed to be light brown?? Almost looks as if they are both dying off. We love our bushes & have given them plenty of TLC…..we finally got berries for the first time last year.
    Thanking you in advance

  16. My holly berries were eaten off my 20 ft holly tree in one day by birds. It is early November. I have never had this happen before. I’m furious. I have no holly for Christmas. Why has this happened and how can I stop them in the future?

  17. I have little black spots on Buford holly mainly on areas that have berries. Is there danger to humans in handling this black spot? I make wreaths and have safety concerns.

  18. I bought a small holly plant for indoors. I don’t know what kind it is but it is spiny and has varigated leaves. Dark green with light green edges. It is doing very well. I have it on a window sill with afternoon sunshine. I’ve had it for about a year. I don’t plan to ever transplant it outside as I live in Minnesota. Do I need to transplant it or keep it as is. In the past year it has grown many leaves, so it is doing very well.

  19. I have an English holly. It was given to me from friend. I know nothing about taking care of them. It’s in a 4 inch pot so it’s small yet and it’s January so when do I transplant or what? HELP!

  20. I purchased several blue princess holly plants for a hedge. The tag on them says 3-6 hours of morning sun ONLY. I’m reading in numerous places that they do best in full sun. So…. where do I plant them? Thanks.

  21. I got a holly from the store and hadn’t been watered. I watered it when I got it home, and it doesn’t seem to been coming around. What do I do.

    • Hi, Sara,
      Gardening questions can be tricky since the rules can change based on the region. You didn’t include the location, so we would suggest contacting your local Master Gardeners association.
      Master gardeners train on a range of topics so they can provide advice, at no charge, for people in their area.
      Thanks for your question, and good luck!


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